Tax Alert: Bonus Depreciation 2023 Phase Out

Tax Alert: Bonus Depreciation 2023 Phase Out

Bonus depreciation is a tax incentive for businesses that allows them to accelerate the depreciation of qualified property, reducing their taxable income and providing them with an immediate benefit.

Introduced under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, bonus depreciation allows companies to write off a percentage of the cost of qualified property when it is put into service rather than spreading the depreciation deductions over the asset’s useful life.

In 2023, the allowable bonus depreciation rate will decrease to 80% for assets placed in service during that year. This change reflects the ongoing phase-out of bonus depreciation in the coming years, with rates scheduled to decline further in subsequent years.

It’s essential for businesses to stay informed of these changes and plan their asset investments accordingly, as bonus depreciation can have a significant impact on their tax liability and overall financial performance.

Key Takeaways

  • Bonus depreciation provides tax incentives for businesses by accelerating depreciation of eligible assets.
  • In 2023, the bonus depreciation rate is set to decrease to 80% for assets placed into service.
  • Businesses should stay informed about these changes and plan their asset investments accordingly.
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Understanding Bonus Depreciation 2023

Bonus depreciation is a tax incentive that allows businesses to deduct a significant portion of the cost of qualifying assets in the year they are placed into service. In 2023, the bonus depreciation rate will undergo a change as part of the phasedown outlined by the U.S. tax regulations.

For assets placed in service from January 1st, 2023 to December 31st, 2023, the bonus depreciation rate will be 80%. This means that businesses can immediately deduct 80% of the cost of eligible assets alongside regular depreciation deductions. The rate will further decrease in subsequent years: 60% in 2024, 40% in 2025, and so on.

To benefit, businesses must purchase and put qualified business property into service before the end of the year. The first-year bonus depreciation can significantly reduce taxable net income and improve cash flow for businesses that invest in eligible assets.

Here are some of the specific rules and eligibility requirements:

  • The asset must be a qualifying property, such as tangible personal property or certain types of software.
  • The asset should have a recovery period of 20 years or less under the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS).
  • The taxpayer must be the original user of the property to claim the bonus depreciation. 

Bonus Depreciation Factors

Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), enacted in December 2017, significantly changed the bonus depreciation rules. Prior to the TCJA, businesses were allowed to deduct 50% of the cost of qualifying assets.

However, the TCJA increased this rate to 100%, allowing for a full deduction of the cost for qualifying property placed in service after September 27, 2017, and before January 1, 2023.

Under the TCJA, the bonus depreciation rate is set to decrease in a phased manner, as follows:

  • January 1, 2023 – December 31, 2023: Bonus rate is 80%
  • January 1, 2024 – December 31, 2024: Bonus rate is 60%
  • January 1, 2025 – December 31, 2025: Bonus rate is 40%

Modifications by the CARES Act

In response to the economic impact brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act modified certain provisions of the TCJA related to bonus depreciation. While the CARES Act did not apply any changes to the bonus depreciation rates, it did amend provisions related to the eligibility of qualified improvement property (QIP).

Under the CARES Act, QIP is considered to have a 15-year recovery period, making it eligible for 100% bonus depreciation. This amendment is retroactive to January 1, 2018, allowing businesses to amend their tax returns and claim bonus depreciation for QIP placed in service since then.

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Bonus Depreciation Qualifications

Qualified Property

To be eligible for bonus depreciation in 2023, the property must be considered as qualified property. This is generally defined as one with the following characteristics:

  • Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) property with a general depreciation system recovery period of 20 years or less.
  • Computer software as defined in and depreciated under Code Sec. 167.

These types of property must be used for business purposes and placed in service after September 27, 2017, and before January 1, 2023, to qualify for the 100% bonus depreciation. The property must also be acquired by the taxpayer and cannot be used property.

Qualifying Assets

Some common types of qualifying assets for bonus depreciation include:

  • Machinery and equipment
  • Furniture and fixtures
  • Certain land improvements
  • Certain types of intangible assets, such as computer software

Land ImprovementsHowever, business property that does not fall under the qualified property criteria may still be eligible for bonus depreciation at a lower rate. 

Tax Incentives and Benefits

The purpose of bonus depreciation is to encourage businesses to invest in new equipment and machinery. This tax incentive is designed to help businesses reduce their taxable income and increase their investments, contributing positively to overall economic growth.

As of 2023, the bonus depreciation rate is set to be 80% for eligible assets. This means that businesses may claim a tax deduction of 80% of the cost for qualified property, with the rest depreciated over the asset’s useful life.

Businesses can significantly decrease their tax liability in the short term by utilizing bonus depreciation deductions.

When companies invest in new equipment and machinery that qualifies for bonus depreciation, they can claim sizable tax deductions, impacting their taxable income in a favorable manner.

The maximum amount that can be deducted for bonus depreciation depends on the cost of the qualified asset. There is no specified limit so that businesses may plan their investments accordingly.

Bonus Depreciation Phase Out 2023 Schedule 

In 2023, the bonus depreciation is set to begin phasing out, which will affect businesses and their ability to accelerate depreciation on qualified asset purchases. The phase-out limits will decrease gradually over the next few years, until the bonus depreciation is completely eliminated in 2027.

Year Bonus Depreciation Rate Conditions Notes
2023 80% Assets placed in service during the calendar year. Property must be placed into service by December 31st, 2023.
2024 60% Assets placed in service during the calendar year. Phase-out limits continue to decrease.
2025 40% Assets placed in service during the calendar year. Phase-out limits continue to decrease.
2026 20% Assets placed in service during the calendar year. Phase-out limits continue to decrease.
2027 0% Program ceases to exist. No more accelerated depreciation on qualifying asset purchases.

It’s important for businesses to be aware of these changing limits as they plan their capital expenditures over the next few years.

By understanding the phase-out timeline, companies can make informed decisions about purchasing and deploying new assets, maximizing tax savings, and strategically timing investments for optimal benefit.

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Important Considerations

#1. Cost Considerations

Before taking advantage of bonus depreciation, businesses must carefully consider the cost of eligible property and depreciable assets.

The purchase price plays a significant role in determining the total amount of bonus depreciation a company can claim, as it directly impacts the depreciation expense that can be accelerated.

For example, equipment purchases with a longer useful life may yield larger depreciation deductions over time, but businesses need to weigh the initial cost against the bonus depreciation benefits.

In 2023, the additional first-year bonus depreciation is phased down to 80%, impacting the cost-benefit analysis for companies investing in eligible properties.

Do you want to learn more about how depreciation works? Check out this video:

#2. Specific Scenario Applications

Businesses should also evaluate the applicability of bonus depreciation in specific scenarios, such as investments in qualified improvement property. The depreciation benefits may vary depending on the type and cost of an asset.

Section 179

For instance, businesses may find it more suitable to opt for the Section 179 deduction as the bonus depreciation allowance decreases annually.

Section 179 is a tax rule in the United States that allows businesses to deduct the full cost of certain types of property from their income in the year they buy it instead of spreading out the deduction over many years. This can help businesses save money on taxes when investing in equipment, vehicles, or software.

In simple terms, if you own a business and you buy, let’s say, a new computer for $1,000, you can deduct that full $1,000 from your income when you do your taxes for that year. 

Section 179 Computer

To gain the most tax advantage, companies must carefully consider the cost of certain assets and determine the most tax-efficient method for depreciating capital investments, whether it be through bonus depreciation or alternative depreciation strategies.

Consultation and Legal Advice

Tax Professionals

It is essential to seek guidance from a tax professional when navigating the changes in bonus depreciation for 2023. A tax advisor with expertise in the Internal Revenue Code can provide valuable insights on how the new law impacts your specific circumstances.

They can assist in identifying the most advantageous strategies for your business by considering various factors like asset acquisitions and disposal patterns.

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Legal Advice

Alongside consulting a tax professional, it is also crucial to obtain legal advice when dealing with the intricacies of bonus depreciation laws. Legal professionals who specialize in tax law are well-equipped to help you navigate any complexities or uncertainties in the Internal Revenue Code as it pertains to bonus depreciation.

Understanding the new law’s nuances and potential implications requires expertise in deciphering and applying tax regulations. Seeking legal advice can ensure that your business adheres to all the necessary guidelines while minimizing its tax burden.


In 2023, the Bonus Depreciation rate will be 80% of the asset’s cost, which allows businesses to deduct a significant portion of the cost of acquiring qualifying assets. This tax incentive aims to encourage companies to invest in new equipment and machinery.

As the year progresses, businesses should remain vigilant and plan their investments strategically to maximize tax savings through bonus depreciation. Not only will this help improve the efficiency and productivity of the company but also contribute to its overall growth. As the bonus depreciation rate is set to decrease in the following years, it is essential for organizations to reevaluate their tax strategies along the way.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the changes to bonus depreciation rules for 2023?

In 2023, the bonus depreciation rate will decrease from 100% to 80%. This change is part of the phaseout process that will continue in the following years. By 2027, the bonus depreciation rate is expected to reach 0%, barring any legislative changes.

When does the bonus depreciation phase out begin in 2023?

The bonus depreciation phase-out begins on January 1, 2023. From this date until December 31, 2023, the rate is 80%. This phase-out process extends through 2026, with the rate decreasing by 20% every year until it reaches 0% in 2027.

How does bonus depreciation apply to vehicles over 6,000 lbs in 2023?

In 2023, bonus depreciation is still applicable to vehicles weighing over 6,000 lbs. The rate is 80%, as part of the phase-out process. It’s essential to note that the vehicle must be new and primarily used for business purposes to qualify for bonus depreciation.

Is bonus depreciation available for real estate in 2023?

Yes, bonus depreciation is available for qualifying real estate properties in 2023. However, you must ensure that your property meets the eligibility criteria outlined by the IRS. This may include being a nonresidential property, a residential rental property, or certain improvements made to said properties.

Will the 100% bonus depreciation be extended beyond 2023?

As of now, there are no plans to extend the 100% bonus depreciation beyond 2023. The phase-out process has begun in 2023, decreasing the rate to 80%. This process will continue until 2027, when the rate is anticipated to reach 0%.

What are the differences between Section 179 and bonus depreciation in 2023?

Section 179 and bonus depreciation are both tax incentives designed to help businesses invest in new equipment or property. The main differences between the two in 2023 are:

  1. Deductible Amounts: Section 179 allows businesses to expense up to a specific limit per year, whereas bonus depreciation allows for an 80% deduction for qualifying assets.
  2. Eligible Assets: Section 179 is generally applicable to new and used property, whereas bonus depreciation applies mostly to new property.
  3. Phase-Out Thresholds: Section 179 has a phase-out threshold based on the cost of qualifying property, while bonus depreciation does not include such a threshold but is subject to the scheduled phase-out process.
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